No organisation ever converts all its prospects or retains all its customers. We all lose business. The question is how much effort should we put into trying to win it back? What actions should we take in rescuing customer journeys that are reaching a dead end?
I read a great blog post yesterday from Wootric on mapping customer journeys. The post highlights the benefits of doing mapping. It also gives useful examples of different ways to map journeys: linearly, using charts, by department, by need and using emotions.
The one important element that was missing, especially from the emotion and need maps, was rescuing customer journeys that are leading nowhere.
Business can be lost at any stage during a customer journey, for example:
- an interested contact gets distracted and goes cold
- a hot lead prefers a competitive offer
- problems with a product make a customer angry
- at renewal time, a customer received a better offer for switching to another supplier.
So we need to map different paths for rescuing customer journeys as shown on the diagram below:
The black line and crosses indicate an ideal journey. This is a smooth progression of increasingly positive emotions. The prospect starts with disinterest since she is not aware of our brand, then moves through interest and satisfaction to delight and trust as she gains experience of our products and services.
Of course, the normal journey rarely goes so smoothly and every map will include actions to avoid customers become stuck at a certain stage. There will be actions to listen, entertain, inform, question and reassure and make offers as customer emotions wobble up and down.
But what if there is a dramatic change of emotion? What happens if a contact become uninterested, a prospect favours a competitor or a customer becones angry or disillusioned?
The diagram shows three example paths for rescuing customer journey:
- The green path: the prospective customer loses interest. The rescue action here might be to ask her what benefit she is looking for from a solution like ours, then to direct her towards material such as testimonials demonstrating that this benefit can be achieved
- The purple path: here the customer is angry due to some fault with our product. So the rescue action might be to assign a specific customer service agent to deal with them. The agent needs to have the authority to solve the problems. Note that a successful resolution can often make the customer more satisfied than she was before. She now trusts that we will solve any future problems that occur.
- The red path: a case might be where a renewal is due and the customer is no longer sure she needs the product. A rescue action could investigate what use is being made of the product and provide help for using it more fully in future.
As the examples show, the dramatic change of emotion may require rescue actions that are costly and require significant effort; Will they be worth it?
We have to decide on a case by case basis. The analysis should always take into account the value built up in the customer journey. Even in the early stages it can be more cost-effective to nurture a contact who has shown interest rather than try to identify a new one. As the journey progresses, relationships and understanding develop between us and the customer, increasing the value. If the journey progresses to a sale, then customer satisfaction has a huge value in terms of our reputation and our repeat business.
When implementing a marketing dashboard for clients, I often use the analogy of a car dashboard. While this is useful, it should not be taken as an exact parallel, since a marketing dashboard has to show clearly and briefly four key things: the status of marketing efforts, the progress they have made, the direction of travel and the ETA – expected time of arrival or how long until objectives are reached.
A car dashboard shows
- speed of travel: the marketing equivalent of speed of progress is important to know
- mileage: for marketing, this translates to the progress made
- RPM: how hard the engine is working, or in marketing terms, how much effort we are putting in to get the results
- fuel gauge: just as on a journey it is essential to know how much is left in the tank, so we need to know the resources left for marketing campaigns
- hazard lights: it is vital to know if anything is going wrong or will soon need fixing, whether this is in a car or in marketing activity
Marketing dashboards also need to show the route ahead and the distance or time to reach the destination (goals). This is the equivalent of the GPS screen (and looking through the windscreen) on a car.
You also need to track what is going on all around you – checking on what customers are actually experiencing,what is happening in the market and what your competitors are doing – just as in a car, you would use the rear-view and side mirrors as well as looking ahead to get a picture of what other cars are doing and of changing road conditions.
So the key elements of a marketing dashboard are:
- your goals – the destination you have tapped into your marketing GPS
- progress in the last period: key measurements such a leads, sales, profit which show you how fast you are going
- forecasts: showing your ETA to reach the goals
- recent activities: the marketing RPM, a measure of the effort going in to achieve the results
- planned activities: this together with future resources and available budget,tells you what is in the tank
- where problems are emerging, timelines are slipping and forecasts being missed: your hazard lights
- customer experience: tuning in to the sound of the car, the smoothness of the ride
- major changes in the market, industry or underlying technology: the all-round view
What measures you choose for each of these areas, depends on your organisation and its current position.
The skills lie firstly in identifying the elements that you can change to make the most difference to the results and secondly in designing it so that the key measures are easy to read and warning lights show critical situations.
In the last week I have come across two great examples of companies taking simple steps to engage well with their customers.
Firstly I bought a PowerAdd external battery backup for my laptop. The laptop does not have an exchangeable battery (at least not without taking it apart) and on days when I was using it intensively away from external power, I was sometimes running out of charge. The PowerAdd PIlotPro that I purchased provides enough power to recharge my battery and so see me easily through the day. It also comes with adaptors and settings for many different types of laptops as well as USB output, so it is really flexible – and it looks good.
The simple step that PowerAdd took to engage me as a customer was to put in a small folded piece of card. On one side there is a smiley face and on the other an unhappy face, with a short message of the reverse of each face. On the reverse of the smiley face is a simple message to say that the company is pleased I am happy and a request to share a review. On the reverse of the unhappy face is the message that their support team is ready to support me with details of different ways I can contact them. The messages are shown on the image at the top of this page.
What is brilliant is how simply the message is delivered: Happy – please share. Unhappy – here’s how we can help.
Many other companies try to achieve the same effect, but don’t execute as well – the messages are hidden in lots of documentation, or delivered at the wrong time, or swamped with questions that the company would like you to answer. With PowerAdd the messages were obvious, quick to read and delivered at the time I was trying out the device.
The other recent example, was on the invoice of a company, CDRC Roofing, who did some repairs to my roof. The invoice arrived with a request to review them via Checkatrade – a simple form to fill in was enclosed with postage pre-paid – or else to like them on Facebook. Again, asking me for a review is a simple thing to do, but so few traders I use bother to do this.
Those who have just purchased are the most important people for suppliers to engage with. But so often we either forget to do so or do not work hard enough to make feedback easy. Satisfied customers are our best source of future sales – via recommendations, referrals or follow on sales. If they are dissatisfied, then the sooner we know, the easier it is to correct mistakes and turn them into satisfied customers.
The three key steps to engaging new customers shown in these two examples are:
- Make it clear how they can get support if they have any issues
- Ask them to recommend, refer or review
- Keep it simple
Starting with these, you can then build up further conversations with the customer over time.
The impact of GDPR
I attended a very interesting talk at the TFM 16 (Technology for Marketing) conference a week ago. It was given by Simon Blanchard of Opt-4 Limited who discussed the implications of GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation). While this EU regulation is not due to come into force until 25 May 2018, as the UK has not yet triggered the exit mechanism, we will still be in the EU when it comes into effect. Just as important is the fact that we will need to continue to comply with many EU rules in order to keep trading with them. Also the EU regulation is likely to influence very strongly any UK legislation that replaces it. In other words, we need to pay attention to it.
The regulation applies to everyone who processes personal data or who asks a supplier to do it for them. It covers both B2B and B2C so it affects all marketing. It strengthens the requirements to obtain explicit customer consent for using their data, broadens the definition of what is included in personal data and add requirements to allow customers to have their data erased or transferred to a new supplier. It also applies to existing data, not just new data obtained after the direct comes into effect.
If you want to find out more details, you had better go to the experts – look at the details on the Information Commissioner’s website or download Simon Blanchard’s presentation from the TFM16 website – it is in the Data Analytics file. But you do not need to be an expert to see how this will make it far more difficult for marketers to buy and sell data in future.
Data protection advantages for customer engagement
While some might view the new rules as a restriction, they should prove no problem for those marketers who have fully embraced customer engagement. Engagement means talking to customers and prospects, listening to their requirements, asking them questions and understanding their needs. It requires empathy as Brian Carroll pointed out in his DreamForce presentation. Respecting their concerns and building trust are key to building a long term relationship from which both sides benefit – the customer with products and services that match her needs and are developed to continue to provide more value, and the supplier with a long-term customer and an advocate.
So while those who practice customer engagement will have to ensure they follow the details of the GDPR, they will already be following the spirit of it.
Ride the wave of customer control
GDPR and new data protection regulations will benefit those whose marketing is built on building trust and creating relationships with customers. It is not a new way of thinking – many companies have thrived by having this engagement built into their ethos. But it needs to be adapted to the modern digital world. Marketing companies such as Ctrl-Shift, who talk about ” giving customers the control over permissions and to use their data to better manage their lives” embody the way trust can be built into relationships which are often primarily or totally online.
Customers nowadays are given power by online information and the power of social networks. To date they have seemed happy to give away their data in exchange for free services, but this is changing. They may be more willing to share than in previous generations, but they want to control how their data is used. Organisations that use engagement marketing or conversation marketing well can ride the wave of customer control.
In a previous post I discussed some of the ways that learning and marketing were similar
- Listening to and understanding the needs of your audience or customers
- Putting across messages in memorable ways
Having last month attended the Learning Technologies Summer Forum (#LTSF16) I have been struck by further similarities between the challenges in the two disciplines as well as in the terms used to describe new approaches.
A key problem for 21st century learning professionals and marketers is working out how to engage the audience. For learning professionals, it is no longer the case that you can expect a classroom of learners to sit for an hour being lectured to. No longer is the onus on learners to pay attention even if the lecture is boring. Learning content must engage the learner for two reasons: firstly because research has shown that lecturing at people is a poor way to help them learn; and secondly because learners nowadays are taking control of their own learning and will avoid materials that do not stimulate them.
Similarly, marketers can no longer expect prospects to pore over long brochures or sit through pages of PowerPoint bullets. Even attractive videos and TV adverts only hold attention for a short time and compete against more and more alternatives. In addition, customers are less likely to stay loyal to brands since there are so many other options that scream out “Try me instead”.
As both marketers and learning professionals struggle to work out what will engage customers and learners, they have to focus on the same critical elements:
- Asking questions
- Use of emotion
- Attractive formats
- Social reinforcement
- The user journey
Understanding needs and pain points
The very first thing we all need to do is to understand our audience. To do this we need to ask the right questions then listen to the answers and reflect on them. This is true whether we are providing a learning environment to help people develop or offering products and services to address their needs. Often the instinct is to concentrate on the product first – what we want them to learn or buy – because that is the easiest to manage. Instead we should start by tackling the difficult area of understanding the audience’s needs and current situation. It involves opening up conversations, running surveys, listening and collecting answers. Once we understand enough about them, we can tailor our solution to address their needs.
Let’s take an example from CLS Performance Solutions, with whom I have worked recently. They provide learning solutions for companies implementing or upgrading major business processes or software, such as ERP systems. So they start by finding out what processes or solutions are already in use, how they are used and the existing level of software skills and understanding. With this basis the learning programmes can be designed to bridge the gap between existing practice and the new ways of working.
Likewise in marketing, understanding the pain points of your prospect’s current solution is key to identifying the particular product features that will bring real benefits to them. When I was working for Dell marketing PCs and laptops to large corporations twenty years ago, it was often tempting to emphasise their fast performance above everything else. However on many occasions, talking to the purchasers and users revealed that although performance was important, it was less important than being able to provide consistent product worldwide over a long period of time. This consistency made software installation, support and service so much easier and hence provided users with much more reliable tools to use.
Engaging Curiosity and Personal Interest
Once we have discovered user needs and worked out how to address them, the next stage for both marketing and learning is to put across the message in an engaging way. I had the privilege of attending a masterclass given by Andrew Stanton a few weeks ago. Andrew is the Oscar-winning screenwriter and director of a number of Disney Pixar animations including Finding Nemo and WALL-E. He was talking about the process of creating a story and the incredible work that goes into developing a script for an animated film, with particular reference to his most recent film, Finding Dory. For him the key question that you had to answer was “Why should I care”?
“Why should I care” is the same question you have to answer for the participants in your learning programmes and the recipients of marketing messages. Everyone needs to understand what the benefits will be for them. You have to engage their curiosity so they bother to listen to your messages about what you are providing. Then you have to present the messages in ways, and using the right words, that resonate with their personal concerns and interest.
Of course, there is one major difference between learning and marketing at this point. Often, learning is something that people are told they have to do and find it difficult to avoid. Whether it be in business life, where your company provides mandatory training, or in formal education, where students are required to attend courses, there is often significant pressure to participate in learning. In marketing however, prospects are usually much freer to ignore any marketing messages. However, learners who are forced to participate without being engaged, are unlikely to gain much from their training. So the drive for engagement of learners is vital in order for training to result in real learning.
Marketing has the long experience of trying to engage prospects who will ignore its messages unless their attention is grabbed quickly. As a result, it has techniques that learning can profitably use. Customer testimonials and case studies (real or even theoretical) are commonplace in marketing, allowing prospects to relate to the experience of “people like them”. They provide a story which shows needs, concerns and pain points which are met by the benefits of the solution being marketed. Just as marketing creates marketing personas which are representations of the different types of customer for whom messages can be personalised, so learning can create their own personas and personalise the learning benefits for each one in order to engage their audience.
Humans are wired to react to and remember great stories. Think about the stories you remember vividly: those that someone told you – maybe a parent, grandparent or teacher when you were young; those that you have read or seen on TV, at the cinema or in the theatre. We remember them because the characters excite our interest and we connect emotionally with their emotions – hope, fear, anger, sadness and happiness – as they journey through the story.
Marketing and learning normally cannot touch our emotions nearly as deeply as the best fairy stories, blockbuster films, classic books or musicals. However, they can harness the same principles at a less intense level. Each should be trying to show the audience their journey from a point of need (either for learning or for a particular product) to the emotions they will feel once they have achieved the learning or acquired the product. We are emotional beings which is why we respond so well to stories. So we need to show that the result of learning some skills or purchasing a product is not just a bald fact but has an impact such as relieving pain or worry, giving us a sense of achievement, opening up new possibilities, making life easier or more enjoyable.
There are already great learning companies which have really embedded storytelling techniques as part of their process. At the Learning Technologies Summer Forum, I came across a number of them, such as Simpleshow with their explainer videos and their emphasis on turning viewers into participants; or eLearning Studios and Nokia with their virtual reality scenarios which are discussed below.
Engaging the senses
Engagement of your audience is helped by involving their senses as much as possible. Learning used to have the advantage over marketing in that it involved face-to-face contact making it easier to see, hear, touch, taste and scent. With the growth of eLearning and mLearning this advantage has reduced. The good news is that new technology is bringing the power to engage people’s senses more fully even remotely.
The presentation by Nokia and eLearning Studios at Learning Technologies Sumer Forum was a great demonstration of this. They presented virtual reality (VR) scenarios that had been developed to make people really feel they were in the situation in which they need to use their learning. For example, to test learning of ethical conduct the VR can simulate the atmosphere of relaxing in a bar after work, where it is easiest to be tempted or lulled into behaving unethically.
VR may not be yet be commonplace, though it is likely to be so in 10 years’ time. However, use of attractive and interactive video is one example of a technology that can involve the senses more and that is affordable and easy to use nowadays in both marketing and learning. The way that music and song creates and evokes strong memories in most people shows us another way that we can make messages memorable by including sound, rhythm and music as part of our learning and marketing material.
This article talks about how to use visual metaphors to enhance learning, as is often done in marketing:
7 Tips To Use Visual Metaphors In eLearning
Engaging the network
As Julian Stodd remarked at LTSF16 “we’re innately social – & latterly technical”. This reminds us of the necessity and power of involving people’s social network for both marketing and learning. Over the last ten years with the rise of social networks such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and LinkedIn, marketing has become obsessed with the use of social media to promote products as well as to communicate and listen to feedback.
Three factors work together to make social media such a powerful tool for marketing: firstly, as I mentioned earlier, testimonials and recommendations can be very persuasive and when they come from those we know, they are even more powerful. So social networks are ideal places to spread positive (as well as negative) reviews. Secondly, online networks make it easy to spread the message quickly to many connections. If someone recommends a product, the recommendation can quickly be seen by hundreds of people. And thirdly, it allows marketers to find specific groups of people, based on the likes, location or online habits. So messages personalised for different types of people can much more easily addressed to the right target markets.
The use of social networks brings similar advantages to learning: firstly, because of people’s enthusiasms for using them, they make great places to share experiences. So it is easy to spread experiences of how to overcome difficulties in learning new skills as well as useful tips on specific topics. Secondly feedback and questions can rapidly reach a large number of people. In this way best practice can be circulated quickly. Also many people will see a question that has been raised, making it more likely that a solution is speedily given. Thirdly, people can search content by topic so that problems and answers are seen by the relevant people.
There is one additional advantage for learning in using social networks that does not apply to marketing. It allows many people to build on the suggestions and comments of others, building a deep set of insights and ways of working. As Charles Jennings says in ‘Love Learning, Love Sharing’: “Social learning is not dependent on teachers and trainers, but on sharing experiences through rich dialogue and conversation.”
Social networks provide the power to bring together people who can learn from each other and build a rich set of knowledge and practice. This shows how the social element of learning can be even stronger than the social element of marketing. “The new social learning reframes social media from a marketing strategy to a strategy that encourages knowledge transfer and connects people in a way consistent with how we naturally interact” (Marcia Connor and Tony Bingham “The New Social Learning”)
The sections above show how both marketers and learning professionals can, and must, take their audiences on a journey: from asking them about their current situation and needs, through providing personalised marketing or learning experiences, to helping them share and enrich their experiences both online and offline.
Whereas in the past it was the marketer or teacher who mapped out the journey, nowadays it the customer or learner who chooses the path themself. For the marketer it is a question of gaining attention for their brand as early as possible, ideally even before there is a specific need, so that the prospect thinks of their brand as soon as the need is established. The move is from “push” marketing to “pull” marketing, with the consumer or client selecting information they want when they want it, rather than having it forced down their throats. So the marketer has to build brand awareness and have relevant content ready to be accessed by the prospect at their time of need.
For learning professionals, the learning goals may be set – by a company in the case of professional development or by exam boards in formal education. But the learner must be provided with materials to reach the goals by the path that suits them. It is a question of providing a “learning playlist”, to use the term used by Saffron Interactive. Learners must be made aware of what the playlist contains, and how to access it. More importantly, they need to be able to personalise it with their experiences and share those experiences with a growing network.
The role of both learning professionals and marketers has become that of a guide for the journey which the learner or customer manages for themselves.
Donald H Taylor remarked recently that it is “A vibrant time for learning”. The same could also be said about marketing. Changes in people’s expectations coupled with new technology are forcing us to change. They are forcing us to engage and have conversations rather than to shout.
How many customer complaints have you had this month?
If the answer is none, then you are probably in trouble.
No-one is perfect and no business is either. We all make mistakes. Some of them are bound to annoy or disappoint customers and prospects.
Moreover, our clients are not perfect either and have bad days or come across problems that they blame on us, rightly or wrongly.
Added to this is the fact that however hard we try to be crystal clear in communicating to the outside world, our audience always ends up with some misunderstandings or lack of understanding – sometimes our fault, sometimes their’s.
The result of errors and lack of understanding on both sides is customers and prospects who are not completely happy.
Customer unhappiness is either expressed or suppressed. Sometimes suppressed feelings will die out, other times they will bubble under the surface and pop up at inconvenient times. When discussing buying more from you, the unhappy customer will likely voice her or his disapproval. When someone else is mentioning a need which your products or services could address, an unhappy prospect will give you a negative rating.
Dissatisfied customers spread negative feedback more than satisfied customers share positive feedback. On the other hand, a dissatisfied customer whose complaint is resolved becomes a more positive advocate for your company, product and service than a customer who has never had a problem. These are two very powerful reasons for providing a clear channel for complaints and dealing effectively with them when they come.
Marketers should always be seeking out customer feedback. Obviously we want to find happy customers who will give us testimonials, recommend us to their network and let us use their experience for case studies. But we should also track user dissatisfaction so that it can be dealt with – by helping the complainant and by changing information, processes or products to avoid repeating the same problem. Our user surveys should track Net Promoter Scores and specific areas of both delight and annoyance.
It is important to ask about the overall experience of the customer. One of my personal annoyances is surveys that I am asked to complete after talking to a company’s customer support. These surveys always ask about the attitude of the person I spoke to and whether they knew their job. The answers to these questions are nearly always yes. But often the person is not been empowered to sort my problem and so I am left frustrated, a point which the survey often misses.
Customer surveys, both formal ones done by marketing and informal ones done by good sales people and customer support representatives, will uncover complaints that might otherwise bubble away under the surface. Meanwhile other customers will contact you directly to complain, maybe with anger or even despair.
To be able to handle all types of complaint you need to
- make sure everyone who deals with customers understands the values of complaints
- listen and evaluate: don’t brush off the complaint but don’t accept responsibility until you establish what the fault is
- empower front-line representatives to resolve issues whenever possible (e.g. to approve returns or replacements where justified)
- set out a procedure for escalating more serious complaints and make management up to the highest level responsible for responding promptly
- analyse the complaints and work out how to reduce them
These actions form a solid starting point. Of course, there is more to be done, for example in helping employees learn how to deal with angry customers. When I was Director of Consumer & Small Business Sales for Dell in France, I was initially astonished by the high number of times that someone who complained then experienced a second problem. Eventually I realised that employees, including myself, often rushed to try to solve the problem because the complainant was angry. This rush led to other errors creeping in. Calming the situation down and taking time to make sure the first solution was right reduced the rate of secondary errors. This was definitely a worthwhile investment. If your processes work 99.9% of the time, then you had better make sure they work 99.99% of the time for those who are complaining. A second mistake is likely to entrench their negative view of you.
So, we all need to find our unhappy customers, for there will be some. Then we need to deal with them to turn them into satisfied customers. We also need to analyse problems and address any root causes.
Have a good time with your complaints. There is a lot of satisfaction in turning a complainant into a satisfied customer.
Think there are mistakes in this article or that I have left out something important? Please do complain – leave a comment below.
Cherish Customer Complaints:
How Unhappy Customers can Paradoxically Help Your Business